Conflict simulation, peacebuilding, and development


A very partial and irregularly-updated work in constant progress (last updated 24/06/2017). Suggestions for additional material are always welcomed.

  • Ambrosio, Thomas. (2004) “Bringing Ethnic Conflict into the Classroom: A Student-Centered Simulation of Multiethnic Politics.” PS: Political Science & Politics 37, 2 (April).
  • Asakawa, Tasia; and Nigel Gilbert. (2003) “Synthesizing experiences: Lessons to be learned from Internet-mediated simulation games.” Simulations & Gaming 34, 1 (March).
  • Asal, Victor. (2005) “Playing Games with International Relations.” International Studies Perspectives 6,  3 (August).
  • Asal, Victor, and Elizabeth Blake. (2006) Creating Simulations for Political Science Education. Journal of Political Science Education 2: 1-18.
  • Austin, W. Chadwick, Todd McDowell, and David H. Sacko. (2006) “Synergy Across the Curriculum: Simulating the Institution of Postwar Iraqi Government.” Journal of Political Science Education 2, 1: 89-112.
  • Bartels, Elizabeth, Margaret McCown, and Timothy Wilkie (2013). “Designing Peace and Conflict Exercises: Level of Analysis, Scenario, and Role Specification.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  • Belloni, Roberto. (2008) “Role-Playing International Intervention in Conflict Areas: Lessons from Bosnia for Northern Ireland Education.” International Studies Perspectives 9,  2 (May).
  • Boin, A., C. Kofman-Bos, and W. Overdijk. (2004) “Crisis simulations: Exploring Tomorrow’s Vulnerabilities and Threats.” Simulation & Gaming,35, 3.
  • Bloomfield, Lincoln, and Padelford, Norman (1959). “Teaching Note: Three Experiments in Political Gaming.” American Political Science Review 53 (4).
  • Boyer, Mark A. (1999) “Political Science: Coalitions, Motives, and Payoffs A Classroom Simulation of Mixed-Motive Negotiations.” Social Science Computer Review 17, 3.
  • Bridge, David; and Radford, Simon. (2013).  “Teaching Diplomacy by Other Means: Using an Outside-of-Class Simulation to Teach International Relations Theory,” International Studies Perspectives, early view online.
  • Brown, Scott W. (2000) “Constructivist Pedagogy and How We Learn: Educational Psychology Meets International Studies.” International Studies Perspectives 1, 3 (December).
  • Brynen, Rex (2010). “(Ending) Civil War in the Classroom: A Peacebuilding Simulation.” PS: Political Science & Politics 43 (January 2010).
  • Brynen, Rex (2013). “Gaming Middle East Conflict,” Middle East Journal, 67, 1 (Winter).
  • Brynen, Rex, and Gary Milante (2013). “Peacebuilding with Games and Simulations.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  • Brynen, Rex (2014). “Teaching About Peace Operations.” International Peacekeeping 21, 4.
  • Butcher, Charity. (2012) “Teaching Foreign Policy Decision-Making Processes Using Role- Playing Simulations: The Case of US-Iranian Relations.” International Studies Perspectives 13 (2): 176-194.
  • Chasek, Pamela. (2005) “Power Politics, Diplomacy and Role Playing: Simulating the UN Security Council’s Response to Terrorism.” International Studies Perspectives 6,  1 (February).
  • Chatham House. (2008) The Regional Dimension of the Palestinian Refugee Issue: Simulation Exercise Report, 23-25 June. Online at
  • Cherryholmes, C.H. (1966) “Some Current Research on Effectiveness of Educational Simulations: Implications for Alternative Strategies.” The American Behavioral Scientist 10, 2.
  • Churchill, Robert L., and Ronald D. Liebowitz. (1990) Spatial Conflict and Conflict Resolution: A Classroom Simulation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 14: 151-156.
  • Cohen, Steve; Kent E. Portney; Dean Rehberger; and Carolyn Thorsen. (2005) Virtual Decisions: Digital Simulations for Teaching Reasoning in the Social Sciences and Humanities. New York: Routledge.
  • Crookall, David. (2003) “Editorial: International Relations and Simulation/Gaming.” Simulation & Gaming 34,  2 (June).
  • Crossley-Frolick, Katy. (2008) “Beyond Model UN: Simulating Multilevel, Multi-Actor Diplomacy with the Millennium Development Goals.”  APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, San José, CA, 22-24 February. Online at
  • Cruickshank, D.R. and Ross Teller (2001) “Classroom Games and Simulations.” Theory into Practice 19, 1.
  • Dekkers, John and Stephen Donatti. (1981) “The Integration of Research Studies on the Use of Simulation as an Instructional Strategy.” Journal of Educational Research 74, 6.
  • Diehl, Barbara J. (1991) “Crisis: A Process Evaluation.” Simulation & Gaming 22, 3 (September).
  • Dorn, Dean. (1989) “Simulation Games: One More Tool on the Pedagogical Shelf.” Teaching Sociology 17, 1.
  • Dougherty, Beth K. (2003) “Teaching African Conflicts.” Active Learning in Higher Education 4, 3.
  • Dougherty, Beth K. (2003) “Byzantine Politics: Using Simulations to Make Sense of the Middle East.” PS: Political Science and Politics 39, 4.
  • Druckman, Daniel, and Noam Ebner. (2007) Onstage or Behind the Scenes? Relative Learning Benefits of Simulation Role-Play and Design. Simulation and Gaming 39, 4.
  • Dukes, Richard L. (1997) “Simulation and Gaming and the Teaching of Sociology. ” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.  Available online at
  • Earnest, David. (2009) “Growing a Virtual Insurgency: Using Massively Parallel Gaming to Simulate Insurgent Behavior.” Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulations (October).
  • Ellington, Thomas C. et al. (2006) “Simulations and Role-Playing II Track Summary.” PS: Political Science and Politics 28, 3.
  • Enterline, Andrew J., and Eric M. Jepsen. (2009) “Chinazambia and Boliviafranca: A Simulation of Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy.” International Studies Perspectives 10 (1): 49-59.
  • Emergency Capacity Building Project (2012), Playing with Reality: The ECB experience using emergency simulations to improve humanitarian response.
  • Florea, Natalie B.; Mark A. Boyer; Scott W. Brown; Michael J. Butler; Magnolia Hernandez; Kimberly Weir; Lin Meng; Paula R. Johnson; Clarisse Lima, and Hayley J. Mayall. (2003) “Negotiating from Mars To Venus: Some Findings on Gender’s Impact in Simulated International Negotiations,” Simulation & Gaming 34 , 2 (June).
  • Flynn, Stephen E. (2000) “Drug Trafficking, the International System, and Decision-Making Constraints: A Policy-Making Simulation.” International Studies Perspectives 1, 1 (April).
  • Franke, Volker. (2006) “The Meyerhoff Incident: Simulating Bioterrorism in a National Security Class.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39 (1): 153-156.
  • Fowler, Michael. (2009).”Culture and Negotiation: The Pedagogical Dispute Regarding Cross-Cultural Simulations.” International Studies Perspectives 10, 3.
  • Frederking, Brian. (2005) “Simulations and Student Learning.” Journal of Political Science Education 1, 3.
  • Giacomello, Giampiero. (2012). “In Brussels: Teaching Policy-making in the EU.” European Political Science 11.
  • Goon, Michael. (2011) “Peacekeeping the Game.” International Studies Perspective 12, 3.
  • Goldhamer, Herbert, and Speier, Hans (1959). “Observations on Political Gaming.” World Politics 12 (1).
  • Green, Kestin (2002). “Forecasting Decisions in Conflict Situations: A Comparison of Game Theory, Role-Playing, and Unaided Judgement.” International Journal of Forecasting 18, 3.
  • Green, Kesten. and Armstrong, J.Scott. (2011). Role Thinking: Standing in Other People’s Shoes to Forecast Decisions in Conflicts. International Journal of Forecasting 27, 1.

  • Greenblat, Cathy S. (1973) “Teaching with Simulation Games: A Review of Claims and Evidence.” Teaching Sociology 1, 1.
  • Greenblat, Cathy S., and Richard D. Duke, eds. (1975) Gaming Simulations: Rationale, Design, and Applications. New York: Halsted Press.
  • Gunn, Allen. (2008) The Open Simulation Platform. Paper online at
  • Guetzkow, Harold; Chadwick F. Alger; Richard A. Brody; Robert C. Noel; and Richard C. Snyder (1975) Simulation in International Relations: Developments for Research and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Harding, Tucker B., and Mark A. Whitlock (2013). “Leveraging Web-Based Environments for Mass Atrocity Prevention.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  • Hobbes, Heidi H. and Dario V. Merno. (2004) “Simulating Globalization: Oil in Chad.” International Studies Perspectives 5, 3 (August).
  • Holt, Charles. (1999) “Y2K Bibliography of Experimental Economics and Social Science Classroom Games — Using Experiments in Teaching.” Online at
  • Hunzenker, Michael, and Kristen Harkness. (2014). “The Strategy Project: Teaching Strategic Thinking through Crisis Simulation.” PS: Political Science & Politics 47, 2 (April 2014).
  • Jefferson, Kurt W. (1999) “The Bosnian War Crimes Trial Simulation: Teaching Students about the Fuzziness of World Politics and International Law.” PS: Political Science & Politics 32 (3): 588-592.
  • Jones, William (1985). On Free-Form Gaming. RAND Corporation research note N-2322-RC. Online at
  • Kaufman, J.P. (1998) “Using Simulation as a Tool to Teach About International Negotiation.” International Negotiation 3, 1.
  • Kelle, Alexander. (2008) “Experiential Learning in an Arms Control Simulation.” PS: Political Science & Politics 41 (2): 379-385.
  • Kille, Kent J. (2002) “Simulating the Creation of a New International Human Rights Treaty: Active Learning in the International Studies Classroom.” International Studies Perspectives 3, 3 (August).
  • Kuzmak, Lynn and John Boehrer, eds. (2000) The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching, Active Learning. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Landwehr, Peter, Marc Spraragen, Balki Ranganathan, Kathleen M. Carley, and Michael Zyda (2013). “Games, Social Simulations, and Data—Integration for Policy Decisions: The SUDAN Game.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  • Lantis, Jeffrey S. (1998) “Simulations and Experiential Learning in the International Relations Classroom.” International Negotiation 3 (1): 39-57.
  • Lean, Jonathan; Moizer, Jonathan; Towler, Michael; and Abbey, Caroline. (2006) “Simulations and Games: Use and Barriers in Higher Education.” Active Learning in Higher Education 7, 3.
  • Levine, Robert; Schelling, Thomas; and Jones, William (1991). Crisis Games 27 Years Later: Plus c’est Déjà Vu. RAND Corporation Report P-7719.
  • Mason, Roger, and Eric Patterson (2013). “War Gaming Peace Operations.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  • Mendelhof, David and Carolyn Shaw. (2009) “Connecting Students Internationally to Explore Postconflict Peacebuilding: An American-Canadian Collaboration.” Journal of Political Science Education 5, 1 (January).
  • McIntosh, Daniel. (2001) “The Uses and Limits of the Model United Nations in an International Relations Classroom.” International Studies Perspectives 2, 3.
  • McMahon, Sean F. and Chris Miller (2013). “Simulating the Camp David Negotiations: A Problem-Solving Tool in Critical Pedagogy.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  •  Mintz, A., Redd, S. B., Vedlitz, A. (2006). “Can we generalize from student experiments to the real world in political science, military affairs, and international relations?” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50, 5 (October).
  • Moizer, Jonathan; Lean, Jonathan; Towler, Michael; and Abbey, Caroline. (2009) “Simulations and Games: Overcoming Barriers to their Use in Higher Education.” Active Learning in Higher Education 10, 3.
  • Muehl, William, and Jeannie Novak. (2007) Game Development Essentials: Game Simulation Development. Delmar Cengage Learning.
  • Newman, William W. and Judyth L. Twigg. (2000) “Active Engagement of the Intro IR Student: A Simulation Approach.” PS: Political Science and Politics 33, 4.
  • Oriesek, Daniel F.  and Jan Oliver Schwarz. (2008) Business Wargaming. London: Ashgate. Some content online at
  • Paramentier, Mary Jane C. (2012) “Simulating in Cyberspace: Designing and Assessing Simple Role Playing Activities for Online Regional Studies Courses.” International Studies Perspectives.
  • Perla, Peter. (1990) The Art of Wargaming. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute.
  • Perla, Peter, and Michael Markowitz. (2009). Conversations with Wargamers. Alexandria: CNA. Available online at:
  • Perla, Peter; and Ed McGrady. (2007) “Wargaming and Analysis.” Presentation made to MORS Special meeting. Alexandria: CNA. Available online at:
  • Perla, Peter; and Ed McGrady. (2007) “Why Wargaming Works.” Naval War College Review 64, 3 (Summer). Available online at:
  • Peterson, Brian J. and Wallace, Suzanne (2003) “When the Classroom Mimics Reality: A Simulation in International Trade and Relations,” May 25. Available online at SSRN:
  • Porter, Tod; Teresa M. Riley; and Rochelle L. Ruffer. (2004) “A Review of the Use of Simulations in Teaching Economics.” Social Science Computer Review 22, 4.
  • Powers, Richard, and Kat Kirkpatrick (2013). “Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution Through Simulations and Games.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February).
  • Quinn, Clark N. 2005. Engaging Learning: Designing e-Learning Simulation Games. Pfeiffer.
  • RAND. c2003. Evaluating Instructional Simulations in the Social Sciences. Online at
  • Raymond, Chad, and Kerstin Sorensen. (2008) “The Use of a Middle East Crisis Simulation in an International Relations Course.” PS: Political Science & Politics 41 (1): 179-182.
  • Raymond, Chad. (2012) “Missing the Trees for the Forest?: Learning Environments Versus Learning Techniques in Simulations.” Journal of Political Science Education 8 (1): 69-84.
  • Reilly, David A. (2003) “The Power Politics Game: Offensive Realism in Theory and Practice.” Simulation & Gaming 34,2: 298-305.
  • Sabin,Philip (2012)  Simulating War: Studying Conflict Through Simulation Games. London: Continuum.
  • Sabin, Philip (2015). “Wargaming in higher education: Contributions and challenges,” Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 14, 4 (October).
  • Sandole, Dennis J. D. (2003) “Validating Simulation-Based Models of Conflict.” Simulation & Gaming 34, 2 (June).
  • Sasley, Brent E. (2010) “Teaching Students How to Fail: Simulations as Tools of Explanation.” International Studies Perspectives 11 (1): 61-74.
  • Saunders, David M.; and Lewicki, Roy. J. (1995) “Teaching Negotiation with Computer Simulations: Pedagogical and Practical Considerations.” Negotiation Journal 11, 2 (April).
  • Schofield, Julian (2013). “Modeling Choices in Nuclear Warfighting: Two Classroom Simulations on Escalation and Retaliation.” Simulation & Gaming 44, 1 (February)
  • Shaw, Carolyn. (2004) “Using Role Play Scenarios in the IR Classroom: An Examination of Exercises on Peacekeeping Operations and Foreign Policy Decision-Making.” International Studies Perspectives 5, 1.
  • Shaw, Carolyn M. (2006) “Simulating Negotiations in a Three-Way Civil War” Journal of Political Science Education 2 (1): 51-71.
  • Shellman, Stephen M, and Kürsad Turan. (2003) “The Cyprus Crisis: A Multilateral Bargaining Simulation.” Simulation & Gaming 34, 2 (June).
  • Shellman, Stephen M. ; and Kürsad Turan. (2006) “Ready-to-use simulation: CONFRONTING GLOBAL ISSUES: A multipurpose IR simulation.”Simulation & Gaming,  32,  4 (December).
  • Shellman, Stephen M and Kürsad Turan. (2006) “Do Simulations Enhance Student Learning? An Empiral Evaluation of an IR Simulation.” Journal of Political Science Education 2, 1.
  • Simpson, Archie W., and Bernd Kaussler. (2009) “IR Teaching Reloaded: Using Films and Simulations in the Teaching of International Relations.” International Studies Perspectives 10 (4): 413-427.
  • Smith, Elizabeth T. and Mark A. Boyer. “Designing In-Class Simulations.” PS: Political Science & Politics 29, 4.
  • Starkey, Brigid A., and Elizabeth L. Blake. (2001) “Simulation in International Relations Education.” Simulation & Gaming 32, 4 (December).
  • Stover, Willian James. (2005) “Teaching and Learning Empathy: An Interactive Online Diplomatic Simulation of the Middle East Conflict.” Journal of Political Science Education 1: 207-219.
  • Stover, William James (2007) Simulating the Cuban Missile Crisis: Crossing Time and Space in Virtual Reality. International Studies Perspectives 8 (1): 111-120.
  • Stroessner, Steven J.; Laurie Susser Beckerman, and Alexis Whittaker. (2009)  “All the World’s a Stage? Consequences of a Role-Playing Pedagogy on Psychological Factors and Writing and Rhetorical Skill in College Undergraduates,” in the Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 3 (August).
  • Susskind, Lawrence E.; and Corburn, Jason. (1999) “Using Simulations to Teach Negotiations: Pedagogical Theory and Practice.” Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law, Working Paper 99-1. Online at
  • Tessman, Brock F. (2006) International Relations in Action: A World Politics Simulation. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Tessman, Brock F. (2007) “The Benefits of Extended Simulations in the IR Classroom.” Paper delivered to the 2007 APSA Teaching and Learning Conference. Online at
  • Thomas, G. Dale. (2002) The Isle of Ted Simulation: Teaching Collective Action in International Relations and Organization. PS: Political Science & Politics 35 (3): 555-559.
  • Turkle, Sherry Turkle et al. 2009. Simulation and its Discontents. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
  • Wedig, Timothy. (2010) Getting the Most from Classroom Simulations: Strategies for Maximizing Learning Outcomes. PS: Political Science & Politics 43 (3): 547-555.
  • Wheeler, Sarah M. (2006) Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses. Journal of Political Science Education 2: 331-347.
  • Wilkenfield, Jonathan. (1993) “Political Science: Network Simulation in International Politics.” Social Science Computer Review 11, 4.
  • Wilkie, Tom. (2007) The Application of Decision-Making Theories to Free-Form Gaming. MA thesis, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Online at
  • Yilmaz, Levent; Tuncer I. Ören; and Nasser Ghasem-Aghaee. (2006) “Simulation-based problem-solving environments for conflict studies.” Simulation & Gaming 37, 4.
  • Youde, Jeremy. (2008) “Crushing Their Dreams? Simulations and Student Idealism.” International Studies Perspectives 9, 3 (August).
  • Young, Joseph K. (2006)  “Simulating Two-Level Negotiations.” International Studies Perspectives 7, 1 (February).

See also the extensive listing at Gaming Political Science (KSU).

2 responses to “Bibliography

  1. Rex Brynen 07/09/2021 at 3:06 pm

    Thanks for passing those on. The bibliography hasn’t been updated in quite a while–there’s simply too much being published–so we will probably revise the way we do it in the near future.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: