Conflict simulation, peacebuilding, and development

Monthly Archives: August 2009

From Global Conflicts: Child Soldiers to Tactical Iraqi

According to Gamer’s Daily News, the Danish gaming company Serious Games Interactive has just released another in its Global Conflicts series:

The Global Conflicts computer game series invites you to experience one of the most turbulent conflicts in Africa! Following up on the award-winning computer game Global Conflicts: Palestine and Global Conflicts: Latin America, the latest title focuses on the use of child soldiers in Uganda.

In this exact moment, all around the world, innocent men, woman and children are becoming victims of local struggles and war. The Global Conflicts series focuses on these victims and their stories. This latest title in the game series takes you to Uganda, where two decades of brutal civil war between government forces and the rebels known as the Lord’s Resistance Army has driven an estimated 1,7 million people into refugee camps, killed tens of thousands, destroyed villages and forced more than 25.000 children into serving as child soldiers.

Global Conflicts: Child Soldiers

Global Conflicts: Child Soldiers, like the previous GC titles, is a 3D role-playing simulation game based on real-life personal accounts from the region. As a player, you will work for the International Criminal Court and will be sent on an assignment in Uganda, where you will meet the feared leader of the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army, Jospeh Kony. The game focuses on topics such as child soldiers, human rights and war-crimes.

The target audience for Global Conflicts: Child Soldiers are critical and reflective players who want to challenge their outlook on the world. The game will be available in English and Danish from August 26th 2009. In the coming months, other Global Conflicts titles will come available at our official Global Conflict portal.

They’ve released a teaser for the product (below), although it doesn’t really tell you very much about game play. As of posting, the product isn’t available for download from their website, although this may change soon. UPDATE: As Anna points out in the comments below, the software can now be downloaded from

I have played around a little with one of their earlier of their games, Global Conflict: Palestine. In this, you’re a freelance journalist (working for an Israeli, Palestinian, or international newspaper) following a story. As you wander around a 3D Jerusalem and interview the locals, you are exposed to a range of a narratives that are themselves shaped by how you approach and interact with your subjects. You’re also under pressure to meet your readers’ and editor’s expectations. In the end, you try to fashion some sense of the “truth” and, using notes and quotes you’ve gathered from the people that you’ve interviewed, produce an article.

I found it interesting and fairly true-to-the-mark, although not especially engaging as a game. (Then again, in fairness to the designers, I’ve been wondering around the region for quite a few years and may have excessively high expectations.) It could be a useful instructional tool in high school classes (and possibly some university classes) if coupled with appropriate briefing and debriefing.

Some of the broader game mechanics are, somewhat ironically, akin to components in several simulations now being used by the military for training purposes. With the growing emphasis on population-centric counterinsurgency (COIN) generated by the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, these “games” typically encourage participants to develop appropriate interaction skills with the local (simulated) population in order to secure information and cooperation. Ineffective approaches, by contrast, tend to alienate the locals.

In the Tactical Iraqi (and Tactical Pashto, Tactical Dari, and Tactical French) language and cultural awareness training software , for example, players learn language and non-verbal communication skills, and then use these to interact with the local population in a 3D environment. In this case, speech recognition software judges the student’s verbal replies:

It is fairly easy to imagine a version of this sort of approach being used in the NGO and aid community. The question, however, is whether it is worth it, or whether human trainers could do a better job. (Of course, the development community doesn’t have to train its employees by the thousands, which is why stand-alone software has the training appeal that it does in large militaries like the US. Equally, the development community doesn’t have the R&D and training budget of the US military either.)

Ascertaining Validity in the Abstract Realm of PMESII Simulation Models (and other thoughts)

Yes, it is a very long title (and that’s only part of it), but those interested in the use of simulation for training and education on peacebuilding may find much of interest in Benjamin Marlin’s recent MA thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School: Ascertaining Validity in the Abstract Realm of PMESII Simulation Models: An Analysis of the Peace Support Operations Model (PSOM):

The Department of Defense has recently declared that irregular warfare is as strategically important as traditional warfare. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of mature training and analysis tools that can be used to support contemporary military operations. One popular wargaming simulation is the campaign-level Peace Support Operations Model (PSOM). This thesis provides a quantitative analysis of PSOM. The results are based on over 75,000 simulated runs of an Operation Iraqi Freedom scenario. The study concludes with the identification of the critical factors within PSOM, recommended potential uses for the model, an accuracy assessment, and an assessment of the risks assumed by using the model. Results indicate that the critical factors within the model are indicative of contemporary operations. PSOM should be used for its original purpose, as a wargame to further study the societal implications of modern military operations. As a wargame, PSOM has strong potential as a high-level staff and leader training tool and as a planning aid for course of action development. Within the confines of this study, the model proved limited in its ability to model changes in force capabilities. Due to its limited ability to model uncertainties in irregular warfare without the human-in-the-loop, or give multiple potential outcomes, further development and analysis is required before the model is used for large scale analysis.

PMESII is, of course, the military acronym for “Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, and Information,” and reflects the increasing attention in the US and elsewhere to the importance of “non-kinetic” elements in the outcome of peace and stabilization operations. (Not surprisingly, fighting costly counter-insurgency campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan rather tends to highlight this dimension in recent professional wargame development) Marlin’s thesis looks at one such insurgency/COIN simulation, the UK-developed PSOM, and subjects it to repeated runs to determine how the model (and, in this case, a simulated Iraq) responds to changing conditions, including unit stances, firepower, rules of engagement, service provision, the delivery of humanitarian assistance, and a host of other variable. The PSOM itself allows for multiple factions to be modeled, along with associated ideologies, ethnicities, resources, and other components.

Of course (as the thesis notes), a simulation of this kind is only as good as the algorithms buried inside it. For some earlier skepticism about how well we can model these sorts of things, see my earlier post on Simghanistan.

There is, however, a great deal of work being done in military operations research on these issues—how to simulate the behaviour of civilians in warzones, for example, or on Human, Social, and Cultural Behavior Modeling for Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction Operations.

Interesting stuff, and largely outside the notice of the humanitarian assistance and development communities (who, I suspect, would be doubtful of its utility as well as lacking the budgets for its development). Although I’m sure that military simulation developers do call upon subject matter experts in these fields from time to time in the development phase, I wonder how often they involve non-military agencies in their efforts to validate the simulations that they produce?

US Video game offers cultural-awareness training

An article today in the Army Times offers a look at how technological developments in virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and user interface are leading to the develop of more immersive training simulations in the military–simulations aimed not simply at honing “kinetic” combat skills, but also developing cultural awareness and similar social skills (emphasis added):

Video game offers cultural-awareness training

By Michelle Tan – Staff writer

Army Times, Friday Aug 21, 2009 6:07:15 EDT

The newest tool in the Army’s cultural awareness training kit doesn’t exactly hark back to “Space Invaders,” “Missile Command,” or even “Doom,” the wildly popular first-person shooter video game of the 1990s. But it is targeted squarely at today’s “gaming generation.”

“Army 360” is a Hollywood-style, live-action training series that commanders hope will appeal to the Army’s game-loving foot soldiers.

“Soldiers, especially this generation, take on information in different ways than my generation,” said Maj. Gen. John Custer, commanding general of the Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca, Ariz. “[People in] my generation are digital immigrants or digital illegal immigrants. They don’t capture information the same way this generation does.”

And it was that realization that led Custer and his team, who are responsible for providing cultural training to an Army that deploys around the globe, to push for the development of Army 360.

“The biggest challenge for a [Training and Doctrine Command] schoolhouse is to remain relevant, because we face the most incredibly adaptive enemy we’ve ever faced,” Custer said. “We have to evolve with commercial technology.“

Cultural awareness is critical to soldiers preparing to deploy overseas, especially to hostile areas such as Iraq and Afghanistan, Custer said.

“It’s more about the handshake than the hand grenade,” he said. “We want to put soldiers through the most intense training we possibly can. We want people to understand that seemingly simple decisions build and build and may come back to haunt them.”

You’ll find the full article at the link here. You’ll also find some comments on the development of VR simulations at the blog, and some words of caution from anthropologist Marc Tyrrell on this issue in a blog post at Small Wars Journal. As I comment on Marc’s piece at SWJ, such technological developments pose potential problems as well as new opportunities, since they place a beguiling interface on possibly debatable assumptions and issues embedded in the software itself:

The risk, of course, is that participants buy into the sugar-coating and immersive, attention-grabbing environment while giving less attention than they should do to where the simulation (invariably) departs from reality.

In classroom settings, of course, you can always use a debrief discussion of simulation shortcomings as “teachable moments” in which to force greater critical engagement by students. In use-by-yourself software, however, there are little or no opportunities for doing so.

This is not to say that such simulations are a bad idea. On the contrary, I think they hold out very considerable promise. On the other hand, I do think it is important to also think about the potential problems that can be associated with the development of increasingly sophisticated machine-based simulation of social phenomena, much as Sherry Turkle has done with regard to simulation in the scientific and design fields in her book Simulation and its Discontents.

Smart Tools video links

youtubeWe’ve discussed several times on PaxSims the recent USIP conference on Smart Tools for Smart Power: Simulations and Serious Games for Peacebuilding. In addition to Gary’s earlier review of the event, you can now find all of the session videos posted on YouTube. If you missed it the first time (like I did), here is your chance!

latest links

Up until now we’ve been simply adding links to the list on the right as we’ve run across interesting sites. The problem with that approach, however, is that regular readers won’t know when we’ve added something new.

Consequently, I’m going to post to the main blog an occasional list of the some of the most interesting links that we’ve added. Check them out!

APSA 2010 Teaching and Learning Conference

logo2clargeThe American Political Science Association has announced the call for papers and proposals for its next annual Teaching and Learning Conference, to be held on 5-7 February 2010 in Philadelphia. As usual, there is a “simulations and roleplay” track in addition to all the others:

Using a working-group model, the conference is a forum to develop models on teaching and learning as well as to discuss broad themes affecting political science education. The meeting will consist of 10 tracks constructed around such themes as:

  • Program Assessment
  • Internationalizing the Curriculum
  • Teaching Political Theory and Theories
  • Diversity, Inclusiveness, and Equality
  • Teaching Research Methods
  • Graduate Education and Professional Development
  • Simulations and Role Playing
  • Civic Engagement
  • Core Curriculum/General Education
  • Integrating Technology in the Classroom

Workshops focus on practical issues related to teaching and allow participants to interact with political scientists outside their assigned track. The call for workshops includes the following themes:

  • Integrating Technology in the Classroom
  • Classroom and Program Assessment
  • Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
  • Strategies for Teaching at Community Colleges
  • Professional Development
  • Civic Education & Engagement
  • Open Call

For further information, click the link above.

GenCon Indy 2009

GenCon 2009—the “original, longest running, best attended, gaming convention in the world” and “the best four days in gaming”—is currently in full swing in its current home of Indianapolis. While devoted to entertainment gaming—boardgames, wargames, customizeable card games, role-playing games, strategy games, computer games, and much else besides—it also has much to offer serious gamers looking for game concepts and approaches that could be adapted to education and training settings. Last year, some 28,000 gamers attended.

Stop Disaster!

flood_sceneLaunched last year, the United Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN ISDR) have produced excellent online game about disaster preparedness and planning that is both informative and fun to play: Stop Disasters!

In the game, players choose one of five scenarios, each set in a different region and built around a different disaster risk: tsunami, hurricane, wildfires, earthquake, and flood. They select a degree of difficulty, are given a set budget, and then try to prepare the local community for the inevitable disaster. A variety of actions are available, depending on the case chosen. In the tsunami scenario, for example, the player can replant vegetation, build various natural and artificial surf barriers, upgrade, demolish, and construct housing and hotels (preferably in safer locations), build public infrastructure, and deploy early warning technologies and training. As you do so, information windows tell you not only about the technique you’ve chosen, but its relative cost, effectiveness, and limitations. When you’ve run out of time or budget, the disaster strikes, unfolding on your screen and generating a report on human and material losses. (Full disclosure: I lost 136 people to my first tsunami, and 48 to the second). The interface works well, and even without reading all the instructions–a bad habit of mine–it is easy to work out how it all works.

UN ISDR’s efforts seem modeled after the great success of the World Food Programme’s earlier Food Force online game. Although Stop Disasters! appears not to have garnered the number of online players and volume of press coverage that the WFP’s effort did, it is certainly at least as informative. It is also much more playable—whereas Food Force rather led you to a single optimal solution in most cases, Stop Disasters! has many, many more possible mitigation strategies.

hurricane_overviewFrom an educational perspective, the simulation highlights nicely that “natural disasters” are far from natural at all, and arise in large part from the ways in which human societies and their built structures interact with (and change) the natural environment. This, coupled with population growth and poverty, creates new vulnerabilities such as low quality housing constructed in vulnerable areas. The simulation also points to, but doesn’t really simulate, some of the trade-offs and tensions between risk reduction measures and economic interests: wide open beaches are popular with the tourists, for example, but increase the risk of inland flooding compared to sand dunes and vegetation. The website includes extensive links to fact sheets, further information, resources for K-12 teachers and other useful materials. It is all very, very nicely done.

Of course, the simulation also simplifies for its audience, as simulations always do. As is often the case, the player is all-powerful, demolishing the (unsafe) dwellings of the locals and building new ones on safer ground with scant regard for the views of their inhabitants, of the landowners, or of the local authorities. (It does, in fairness, note that real-life construction requires local planning permission, but it does miss a chance to highlight the importance of local support, stakeholder consultation, host community and country ownership of the process, and so forth.) There are no powerful local economic interests in Stop Disaster! to prevent you from planting trees on a tourist beach, or opposing costly building upgrades. Local construction codes, once you’ve demanded upgrades, appear to be scrupulously implemented—no contractor short-cuts, sub-standard materials, or corrupt building inspectors here! However, used in an instructional setting (generally high school or even introductory development courses in university) these are all issues that can be discussed, with even the simulation’s limits providing a range of additional potential teaching opportunities if properly handled by a course instructor. Indeed, I’ll likely be using the simulation as the basis for small group discussion for the module on disaster vulnerability in my own development courses.

Finally, I’ll throw out a challenge to the PaxSims readership: play the game and post your high scores in the comments section here, with the winner to be highlighted in a future PaxSims post. Go to it, would-be international disaster-reducers!

Carana DDR simulation, Norwegian edition

NODEFICGary has discussed several times on PaxSims the Carana simulation used at the World Bank for staff training regarding fragile and conflicted -affected countries, and we’ve also noted the AU’s use of the (UN-originated) Carana setting. Adding to our collection of Caranas, we’ve come across another.

The Norwegian military is using a version of Carana as the setting for a training simulation, this time for a DDR (disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration) planning course taught by the Norwegian Defense University College, Norwegian Staff College, and Norwegian Defense International Centre. Of the 48 hours of instruction in the course, 18 are devoted to the Carana simulation. The course brochure can be found here (or click the image to the right).

Judging from what I can find by searching the Norwegian Ministry of Defence website, students are provided with a copy of the ceasefire provisions of the peace treaty that ended the fictional civil war in Carana, together with a report from the Secretary General on Carana and the UN mission there, and a brief analysis of the military forces of the combatants. There are also a series of maps of Carana (in Powerpoint format), detailing geography/topography, transportation networks, landmines, and government and rebel deployment zones.

There’s enough here that others could easily use the same materials, for example in abbreviated form in university classrooms when addressing DDR themes.

Incidentally, if here or elsewhere simulation users would prefer that PaxSims not post details of their simulations, just let us know. While we’re trying to promote networking among people working in this area, we certainly don’t want to be unduly influencing any potential simulations.


The African Union is currently developing the architecture and capacities necessary to field a military and civilian African Stand-by Force (ASF) by 2010 as a multilateral civilian and military crisis management tool for the continent. the AU has given the name “AMANI AFRICA” to this first ASF training cycle, and to its final exercise.

As part of that process, and building on the Africa-EU Strategic partnership, EURORECAMP is a European training programme focusing on strategic education and training for the benefit of local African decision makers. As part of this, AMANI AFRICA will involve simulation exercises based on a Pearson Peacekeeping Centre-designed scenario located in the fictional country of Carana (as also used, in different forms and settings, by UN DPKO and by the World Bank):

caranamapThe Carana Training Scenario is being developed for the AMANI AFRICA training cycle which will exercise the AU in the deployment of the African Standby Force. The scenario package builds on a United Nations scenario developed by the African Union. Carana, a fictitious African country, is one of six on the fictitious island of Kisiwa. This island for the purposes of AMANI AFRICA is located off the coast of East Africa, but is designed to be relocated to any off shore sub region of Africa if necessary.

A country book providing great detail has been developed for the Democratic Republic of Carana, as this is the primary country.

Country studies in less detail have been developed for the neighbouring states of the People’s Republic of Katasi, the Republic of Rimosa and the Islamic Republic of Sumora.

Country profiles with essential detail to provide a comprehensive regional context have been produced for the peripheral countries of the Republic of Mosana and the Kingdom of Namuna.

Carana provides a realistic base scenario from which specific scenarios can be designed.

Additional information on the scenario, including an Executive Summary of the Training Scenario (April 2009), a Summary of Major Events, and a Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms can be found on the appropriate section of the AMANI AFRICA – EURORECAMP website.

UPDATE: The AMANI AFRICA website can now been found here. Since the simulation materials may soon disappear from AU and EU websites, and the Pearson Centre is now defunct, I’ve uploaded a copy of the Carana scenario to PAXsims.

Peacekeeping training simulations from the PPC

Surfing the web today (when I should be writing a grant application instead), I came across this report from last year on a run of the “Salmo” peacekeeping scenario for the Turkish military, organized and implemented by the folks at the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre and held at the Ataturk Wargaming and Cultural Center (you’ve got to love that name…)

Postcard from Fontinalis

King’s students telling the stories of a fictional land

Tidings, Summer 2008

By Mark Burgess

The salvelinus fontinalis is a brook trout prominent in eastern Canada. The salmo trutta is a brown trout, native to Europe and Asia.

Fontinalis and Trutta are also hostile nations in the fictitious region of Salmo, the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre’s creation and the site of a journalism internship for eight graduating King’s students last November.

Operation Eurasian Star—a NATO Rapid Deployable Corps training exercise for the Turkish military—operated in the secure confines of Istanbul’s Ataturk Wargaming Centre, where we worked 12 to 13 hour days. But for the most part our compasses were dialed to the fictional coordinates.

And so the eight of us—Lyndsie Bourgon, Colleen Cosgrove, Jenny McCarthy, Connor MacEachern, Richard Norman, Sandi Rankaduwa, Sarah-Jane Steele and I—were the media corps, covering the cruel fictions of balkanized Fontinalis.

Pearson staff Dr. Kenneth Eyre and Peter Dawson (BAH ’85) masterminded the make-believe country and the scenarios that came with it. Their creation borrows Nova Scotia’s geography, the former Yugoslavia’s tragedy and employs Latin fish names for the area’s doppelgängers. Eastern Canada is Salmo, a region of seven countries. Mainland Nova Scotia becomes Fontinalis and eastern New Brunswick is the rival People’s Republic of Trutta. The conflict began when old tensions between Ethnic Truttan enclaves within Fontinalis and the majority Fontinalians boiled over

Salmo is a thorough creation. The scenario’s background documents included detailed topography, elaborate histories, invented religions, complex ethnic loyalties and colourful embellishments. For example: the endangered Great Northern Panther (3.5 metres, 230 kilograms) haunts the forests of the Libris prefecture with an innate taste for human flesh; the national drink, Vyskejak, is a grain liquor sold at a potency ranging from 35 to 65 per cent alcohol, and is pronounced with the hard ‘V’ that distinguishes the Vontinali language.

The plot lines used in the simulation were varied and unrelenting. Each day featured a heavy dose of “injects,” events designed to test the Turkish forces’ ability to respond to the unexpected. These ranged from the assassination of a Supreme Court judge, to Greenpeace accusations that a NATO boat had injured a whale, to more serious indiscretions leveled against the forces. The military’s response to these trials—practically, diplomatically, and, in part, with the press—determined the battle rhythm, or the pace and content of future injects.

The responses weren’t always what we expected; sometimes there was no response at all. The Turkish military wasn’t accustomed to the scrutiny we presumed was our right, which made it difficult for both of us.

According to the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre:

Training for this “fog of peace” requires exposure to peace operations in all their complexity. The PPC’s exercises require organizations to assess complex situations and to interact with other key players in order to achieve their mission objectives. In doing so, the scenario presents the opportunity to develop and practice team and individual skills as part of an organization’s preparation for potential deployments.

The region of Salmo – with its seven fictitious countries – was written to represent a complex and unstable region of the world. The crises in the region encompass all of the elements of complex and realistic contemporary conflicts, including civilian, military and police dimensions. The scenario is based on an amalgam of various peace operations since the Cold War including aspects of Afghanistan, Somalia, Sudan, and the former Yugoslavia.

You’ll find more on PPC’s training simulations here, including both the Salmo scenario and their own version of Carana—the latter being developed for the AMANI AFRICA training cycle which will exercise the African Union in the deployment of the African Standby Force. Some of this latter simulation is now online, so I’ll devote a full post for it.

Forthcoming “Reacting to the Past” regional faculty conference

The very successful Reacting to the Past series of classroom historical simulations will have its next workshop in October 2009, at Eastern Michigan University:


Eastern Michigan University | October 16-18, 2009

Call for Participation

We are pleased to invite college faculty and administratiors to the regional “Reacting to the Past” Conference hosted by Eastern Michigan University (Ypsilant, MI). At the conference, faculty and administrators will learn about “Reacting to the Past” by participating in intensive two-day workshops on a particular game (see “featured games” below).

In addition to game sessions, we will have discussions of a more general character on student motivation, teaching, liberal arts education, and the problems and possibilities of the “Reacting” pedagogy. Participants are encouraged to attend all game and plenary sessions.

Full conference details can be found here. The conference will, among other things, allow faculty to experience two different simulations from the series:

Track A.  Charles Darwin, the Copley Medal, adn the Rise of Naturalism, 1862-64 thrusts students into the intellectual ferment of Victorian England just after publication of The Origin of Species. Since its appearance in 1859, Darwin’s long awaited treatise in “genetic biology” had received reviews both favorable and damning. Thomas Huxley and Samuel Wilberforce presented arguments for and against the theory in a dramatic and widely publicized face-off at the 1860 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford. Their encounter sparked a vigorous, complex debate that touched on a host of issues and set the stage for the Royal Society’s consideration of whether or not they ought to award Darwin the Copley Medal, their most prestigious prize. While the action takes place in meetings of the Royal Society, Great Britain’s most important scientific body, a parallel and influential public argument smoldered over the nature of science and its relationship to modern life in an industrial society. A significant component of the Darwin game is the tension between natural and teleological views of the world, manifested especially in reconsideration of the design argument, commonly known through William Paley’s Natural Theology or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (1802), and updated by Wilberforce. But the scientific debate also percolated through a host of related issues:  the meaning and purposes of inductive and hypothetical-speculation in science; the professionalization of science; the implications of Darwinism for social reform, racial theories, and women’s rights; and the evolving concept of causation in sciences and its implications for public policy. Because of the revolutionary potential of Darwin’s ideas, the connections between science and nearly every other aspect of culture became increasingly evident. Scientific papers and laboratory demonstrations presented in Royal Society meetings during the game provide the backdrop for momentous conflict that continues to shape our perceptions of modern science.

Track B. Defining a Nation: India on the Eve of Independence, 1945 is set at Simla, in the foothills of the Himalayas, where the British viceroy has invited leaders of various religious and political constituencies to work out the future of Britain’s largest colony. Will the British transfer power to the Indian National Congress, which claims to speak for all Indians? Or will a separate Muslim state—Pakistan—be carved out of India to be ruled by Muslims, as the Muslim League proposes? And what will happen to the vulnerable minorities—such as the Sikhs and untouchables—or the hundreds of princely states? As British authority wanes, smoldering tensions among Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs increasingly flare into violent riots that threaten to ignite all India. Towering above it all is the frail but formidable figure of Gandhi, whom some revere as an apostle of non-violence and others regard as a conniving Hindu politician. Students struggle to reconcile religious identity with nation building—perhaps the most intractable and important issue of the modern world. Texts include the literature of Hindu revival (Chatterjee, Tagore and Tilak); the Koran and the literature of Islamic nationalism (Iqbal); and the writings of Ambedkar, Nehru, Jinnah, and Gandhi.

Although I haven’t (yet) participated in one of these simulations, I have seen some of the resource materials, and it looks very interesting. Feedback from colleagues who do use it in the classroom has also been very positive.

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